Exposure to vapors or liquid anhydrous ammonia also can cause blindness and severe burns. Because liquid ammonia boils at -28°F, the expanding gas has the potential to freeze anything in its path of release, including human flesh and organs. Anhydrous ammonia – used in manufacturing, refrigeration and agriculture – is a pungent, colorless and toxic gas or liquid that, when concentrated, is corrosive to human tissue upon contact, according to NIOSH. If you are considering fall application of anhydrous ammonia to corn fields (the only nitrogen fertilizer recommended for fall application), remember to wait until soil temperatures cool to 50° F and continue to trend colder. Application of anhydrous ammonia (NH 3) is a low cost method of adding non-protein-nitrogen to your corn silage. The website can be found at http://extension.agron.iastate.edu/NPKnowledge/soiltemphistory.html. It is recommended that if an employee can smell it they ought to back off and determine if Iowa State University of Science and Technology. Anhydrous ammonia is an alkali. Out of 100 Arkansas facilities that have used anhydrous ammonia, 21 had accidents and nine had more than one. In the lungs, liquid anhydrous ammonia causes 2. Industrial ammonia is sold either as ammonia liquor (usually 28% ammonia in water) or as pressurized or refrigerated anhydrous liquid ammonia transported in tank cars or cylinders. Ammonia will keep spreading across contacted skin until the chemical is diluted by skin moisture. It is unlikely that such concentrations will occur except in confined spaces or in the proximity of [. All rights reserved. The rapid evaporation causes the temperature of the liquid to drop until it reaches the normal boiling point of -28°F, a similar effect occurs when water evaporates off the skin, thus cooling it. High concentrations in the air can also dissolve in the moisture of the skin or perspiration and result in a corrosive action on the skin and mucous membranes. If conditions are not suitable, then waiting for better conditions is suggested. Stress corrosion cracking proceeds more rapidly at high temperatures. It can explode if released in an enclosed space with a source of ignition present, or if a vessel containing anhydrous ammonia … APPEARANCE: Clear, colorless, gas.Clear, colorless liquid under pressure. Ammonia is extremely soluble in water and is frequently used as a water solution called aqua ammonia. “The reason for waiting to apply anhydrous ammonia until soils are cold is that nitrification, the process of biological conversion of ammonium to nitrate, occurs at a more rapid rate with warm soils. OSHA considers anhydrous ammonia to be “immediately dangerous to life and health” at a concentration of 300 parts per million (ppm), or 0.03%. Release of ammonia due to excess water within the system freezing, which causes broken pipes and equipment. Ammonia is corrosive to the skin, eyes, and lungs, and even a brief exposure can result in severe chemical burns. 3. Corrosive to copper, zinc, tin, brass, and galvanized steel surfaces. State & National Extension Partners, Waiting will prevent loss of fertilizer and help protect water quality, October 28, 2016, 1:43 pm | John Sawyer, Dustin Vande Hoef, Iowa Department of Agriculture and Land Stewardship, http://extension.agron.iastate.edu/NPKnowledge/soiltemphistory.html, ISU Extension and Outreach field specialist. 0°F, it will become 99 percent full at 68°F. Only iron, steel, certain rubbers and plastics, and specific nonferrous alloys resistant to ammonia should be used for fabrications of anhydrous ammonia containers, DES MOINES, Iowa – Farmers are reminded to wait until soil temperatures remain below 50 degrees Fahrenheit before applying anhydrous ammonia (NH3) fertilizer this fall. Liquid anhydrous ammonia weighs less than water. If the tank is 90 percent full at percent ammonia by weight. It is injected into the ground (where the plant’s roots are or will be). However, ammonia vapor in high concentrations Anhydrous ammonia must be applied to corn silage before it enters storage. When anhydrous ammonia is released from compression in a storage tank (200 psi) to the atmosphere (0 psi), the temperature drops from 100 F to minus 28 F. At this temperature, ammonia freeze-burns human skin on contact. 5. Moving the tank before disconnecting the hose. As a refrigerant, it can be found at ice works, cold stores and various food processing facilities (e.g. It is, however, also a very volatile and highly toxic substance, one that can blind, suffocate, burn, and even kill people. Ammonia easily dissolves in water. Note It is the oldest material used as a refrigerant; but 80% of its use is as a fertilizer. Ammonia: Synonyms: Anhydrous ammonia: Chemical Formula: NH 3: CAS number: 7664-41-7: Molecular Weight: 17.03: Boiling point −33.3°C: Melting point −77.7°C: Triple point temperature −77.7°C: Triple point pressure: 0.06 atm: Vapor pressure (21.1°C) 8.76 atm: Absolute density (25°C) 0.706 g/l: Relative density: 0.597 (Air = 1) Critical temperature: 133°C: Critical pressure: 112.7 atm Then flush the whole body or the exposed area with generous amounts of water; includes the hair, ears, under chin, and armpits. The following situations can lead to an incidental release or personal injury: 1. Weakened undercarriage structure. to manage changes to equipment, procedures, The accumulation of soil causes a wider furrow and reduces the flow of soil back over the fertilizer band. Ensure ammonia being introduced to the system is refrigerant grade. Liquid ammonia will expand by 850 times when evaporating: As a result, anhydrous ammonia burns keep spreading until the chemical is diluted. (16 to 25 percent by weight in air) will burn. the eye can occur depending on whether a spray or gas is ANHYDROUS AMMONIA COLD-FLO SAMPLER The cold-flo sampling converter allows safe and convenient sampling of liquid anhydrous am-monia by producing a stream of liquid ammonia refrigerated to –28 F. The flow of this stream is restricted to a low value by an orifice plate installed on the inlet line. Establish and implement written procedures Because water can absorb ammonia so readily, it is a factor that contributes to human toxicity. Follow operating procedures for charging the system to prevent impurities from being introduced. 10 percent. The spray is also capable of freezing clothing to • The collected ammonia is anhydrous and any water in the condenser can be removed a CaO dryer. Anhydrous ammonia gas is considerably lighter than air and will rise in dry air. Clothing actually is frozen to the skin. Overfilling the tank. Dustin.VandeHoef@Ioawagriculture.gov, Copyright © 1995-var d = new Date(); var n = d.getFullYear(); document.write(n); These facilities, including Tyson Foods, Simmons Foods, and Zero Mountain Inc., mainly use anhydrous ammonia as a refrigerant for cold storage and meat packing. The permissible exposure limit (PEL) is 50 ppm ... as cold temperatures can keep an ammonia cloud on the ground. Ammonia in water solution is called When mixed with lubricating oils, its flammable concentration range is increased. 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